Thailand rescinds order censoring posts that 'cause fear' even if they are true
||13th August 2021 |
See article from theguardian.com
Thailand's military backed government has been forced by a court injunction to rescind a recent order banning news that causes public fear, as it faces growing protests over its handling of the Covid pandemic.
The government, which had sought to
restrict news that causes public fear, even if it is true, had been accused by journalists and human rights groups of trying to prevent negative reporting and silence critics. The civil court issued an injunction against the regulation last week and it
was revoked on Tuesday.
Thai officials are facing increasing public anger over their response to a recent wave of Covid-19, including over the country's slow vaccination campaign. Protesters took to the streets over the weekend and again on
Tuesday, with police firing rubber bullets, teargas and water cannon to disperse them.
Thai authorities propose a £11,400 fine for internet users who post a picture of an alcoholic drink
||2nd July 2021 |
See article from
Thailand's The Standard news website has reported that it could soon be possible to be fined 500,000 baht (£11,400) just for posting a picture of a glass of beer or wine. And 60-80% of that fine could go into the pocket of the police or authority that
brought the prosecution.
Up to now private individuals can be fined 50,000 baht (£1150) for promoting or advertising alcohol. Now a draft amendment from the authorities is proposing this is increased to half a million baht.
are liable to larger fines, currently at 500,000 baht, but the proposals would see this rise to a full one million baht. There is also a proposal to stop a kind of loophole that allows big firms to promote their products by referring to soda rather
than beer. Eg the beer maker Singha advertises its bottled water brand with a logo that is also used for its beer.
In future just using the soda/water logo could be illegal and subject to the alcohol fines by association.
The new proposals are
currently on public consultation until 9th July, although it is a little offputting that ID cards are required from those wishing to comment.
Thailand opens its new internet control center
November 2019 |
See also antifakenewscenter.com
Thailand's Digital Economy and Society (DES) Minister, Buddhipongse Punnakanta, has launched the government's 'anti-fake-news' centre at the head office of the country's state telecoms company TOT.
Buddhipongse said that any challenged infomation
will be verified within two hours by the centre. The verification process is said to include both human and artificial intelligence. He added:
Some 200 organisations in our network will each send two people to serve as
contact persons within 24 hours who have to receive cases and help verify whether their obtained information is true or false.
The centre will look at the top 10-20 most-shared news items or messages on social media platforms,
including Facebook, Google, YouTube and Twitter.
People are also allowed to send information they find suspicious to the centre so it can be checked and verified with relevant organisations. The verified information will be shared
through online channels.
Any information deemed as infringement will be forwarded to the Royal Thai Police for investigation.
The center will employ about 30 checkers who will target news about government
policies and content that broadly affects peace and order, good morals, and national security.
Thailand sets up an internet censorship centre in the name of 'fake news'
August 2019 |
See article from xinhuanet.com
Thailand's Digital Economy and Society Minister Puttipong Punnakanta plans to set up a Fake News Center.
The digital minister confirmed that he is looking to create the Fake News Center to:
get rid of
fabricated, misleading content on social media which might jeopardize the people's safety and property and violate the Computer Crime Act and other laws.
For instance, content on social media about natural disasters and health
care might be fabricated or exaggerated only to confuse and scare viewers. They might be deceived by fraudulent investment scams or lured to buy illegal, hazardous health products online.
He said a dozen government agencies will be
asked to cooperate with the Fake News Center such as the police, the military, the Consumer Protection Board, the Food and Drugs Administration and the Public Relations Department, among others.
Thailand's military government passes extreme internet surveillance, censorship and non judicial enforcement law
||4th March 2019 |
See article from aseaneconomist.com
Thailand's military-controlled parliament has unanimously passed a new Cybersecurity Act to give the junta deeper control over the internet.
The act allows the National Cybersecurity Committee, run by Thailand's generals, to summon individuals for
questioning and enter private property without court orders in case of actual or anticipated 'serious cyber threats'. Court warrants are not required for action in emergency cases and criminal penalties will be imposed on those who do not comply with
The authorities can now search and seize data and hardware without a warrant if a threat is identified by the unaccountable body.
The Vogue for Thailand making commonplace social media postings into a criminal offence
||19th August 2017 |
See article from vogue.com
Vogue fashion magazine has been reporting on the dangers of social media posts that contain images which included alcohol brands. Vogue magazine writes:
Tourists might not realize as they make their guidebook-mandated
pilgrimage to nightlife hotspots like Khao San Road, is that despite the country's many Full Moon parties and bar girls, alcohol advertising is illegal. And posting a photo on social media of your beer by the beach could count as advertising.
Recently police have begun to strictly enforce 2008's Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, which bans displaying the names or logos of products in order to induce people to drink such alcoholic beverages, either directly or indirectly.
Last month, police announced their intention to more closely patrol social media and charge those found breaking the law. That means even if your favorite actress wasn't being paid for her endorsement and really was just sharing a
photo with a drink by the pool or on a night out, she could find herself facing a 50,000 baht (about $1,500 USD) fine for indirectly inducing drinking.
Earlier this month, eight local celebrities were fined for posting selfies
with alcoholic drinks on social media, with Thai Asia Pacific Brewery and Boon Rawd Brewery Co. (the producer of Singha beer) also implicated in the case. But police aren't just monitoring the accounts of the rich and famous -- at the beginning of
August, three bar girls found themselves arrested after making a Facebook Live video inviting people to come enjoy a beer promotion.
Thai government proposes extreme measures to control phone users and social media companies
||18th July 2017 |
See article from mobileworldlive.com
International over-the-top (OTT) content providers have been the bane of Thai regulator National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission's (NBTC) existence over the past few months.
The supposedly independent communications censor seems to be
obsessed with finding ways to curb the likes of Facebook, Google, YouTube and Alibaba. In early April it boldly suggested imposing some kind of bandwidth fee on the consumption of OTT services, requiring OTT players to have an operating licence to run a
business in Thailand and even making them pay a value-added service tax for transactions by local merchants.
The head of the broadcasting committee, Natee Sukonrat, was quoted as saying users on social media who influence public opinion will have
to be reined in.
What on the surface may seem to be an effort to create a more level playing field for the mobile players could also be seen as a thinly disguised attempt to give the regulator the power to more easily monitor and censor content
the government is finding difficult to regulate. The widely-criticised proposals are merely a backhanded move to bypass current legal processes and give the regulator the authority to demand the removal of content the military-run government considers
illegal without waiting for a court order, which the government has complained is time consuming.
Facebook and co would not play ball with Thai government requests and the government was forced drop the plan to register OTT players for tax
purposes. However the government said that it would push ahead to replace several weak points in the censorship process and come up with a revised proposal in 30 days.
And now the junta's ominously named National Reform Steering Assembly this
month approved an 84-page social media censorship proposal, which would require such things as fingerprint and facial scanning just to top-up a prepaid plan, all in an effort to be able to identify those posting content to OTT services. The push for
fingerprint and facial recognition is in addition to existing requirements for all SIM users to register with their 13-digit national IDs.
Commentators say the stringent rules are similar to those in use in China and Iran.
||18th November 2016 |
Because it's only an 'improvement' for government internet control
See article from khaosodenglish.com
Thailand to ask facebook to censor content the government doesn't like
||13th February 2016 |
1st February 2016. See article from rt.com
Thailand's military dictators are moving to heighten its online censorship by persuading social media networks Facebook and Line to comply with court orders to remove content the government doesn't like.
The junta-appointed National Steering Reform
Assembly (NSRA) will meet executives in the coming three months, council member Major General Pisit Paoin told Reuters.
A similar request was made last month to Google over content on YouTube. .
Update: On the
13th February 2016. See article from nationmultimedia.com
Thailand's military dictators have turned their attention to the censorship of the Line messaging app. They have arranged a meeting with managers from Line to be held at the Thai parliament.
The Thai government will call on Line to censor content
that the government does not like.
Line said earlier in a statement:
The privacy of Line users is our top priority. Once we have been officially contacted, we will conduct due diligence of the related parties
and consider an appropriate solution that does not conflict with our company's global standards, or the laws of Thailand.
The Thai government also commented on three meetings with Google executives. The first was held unofficially in
December 2015, while the second and third were official meetings in January. As a result, the government said it received good cooperation from Google to reduce processing and take-down time for inappropriate [video] content from YouTube.
Thailand's military dictators resume plans to censor the internet
||21st October 2015 |
See article from straitstimes.com
Thailand's junta has said it planned to create a new military unit to censor online dissent, as Internet freedom campaigners said they were training hundreds of volunteers for a cyber war against censorship.
The proposed unit follows
controversial plans for a single access point to the Internet, dubbed by online protesters as the Great Firewall of Thailand - in reference to China's draconian web surveillance - because it would make it easier to monitor the web.
Thai premier Prayut Chan-o-cha claimed no conclusions have been reached on the single gateway but defence minister Prawit Wongsuwon has now told reporters the military is continuing with the plan.
In response, the group Citizens Against Single
Gateway: Thailand Internet Firewall, vowed to launch unspecified attacks against the junta if the gateway plans were not cancelled. The group said the group in a Facebook post:
In order to win the cyber war this
time, we must use brains, skills and patience.
Thai Media Groups Reject Internet Censorship Bill
||9th November 2013 |
See article from
Thailand's Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) wants to revise the Computer Crime Act of 2007 but several media groups in the country are opposing changes to the law.
The ICT claims that reforming the law is necessary to curb
the growing menace of cybercrime but critics fear it would lead to greater online censorship .
On October 24, five media groups in Bangkok issued a joint statement rejecting the amendments drafted by the Ministry. They include the Thai Journalists
Association, Thai Broadcasting Journalists Association, Online News Providers Association, Information Technology Reporters and Academic Specialists on Computer Law Group.
The amendments would further tighten the Computer Crime Act (CCA), a law
that has been widely criticized for its harsh penalties for various kinds of online speech. It includes the lese majeste law under which several netizens have been imprisoned for criticizing the king online.
Among proposed amendments to the CCA is
a measure that would allow authorities to block websites without seeking prior approval from a court and the ICT Minister. Under the current law, authorities cannot have sites blocked without a court order.
Media groups speaking out against the
amendments to the CCA are particularly opposed to this amendment, calling it a violation of the people's right to information. Further, they have demanded that the government drop the draft proposal as it:
standards of training for responsible officials and grants excessive power to the authorities. The groups added that the bill goes against Internet communication infrastructure and places disproportionate burdens on website operators, Internet and mobile
phone service providers, and Internet users.
An editorial in the Bangkok Post derided the 2007 law, arguing that it has become a tool for harassing government critics and must be scaled back:
CCA is the basis for massive internet censorship, sometimes compared with that of China. It has imprisoned people to longer terms than parallel, non-computer laws allow. And it has almost never been used for the purpose it was supposedly introduced for.
There is no longer even an estimate of the number of websites and pages closed or blocked by (the ICT) ministry. Certainly it is well into six figures. The ICT minister, using opaque and unaccountable
appeals to a court, can effectively block any website from standard online access, without accountability, appeal or even the knowledge of those involved.
The editorial argued that the government should shift its focus back to the
original intent of the law, which was to prevent online financial crimes such as phishing and identity theft.
Supporting the five Thai media groups is Reporters Without Borders , which cautioned the government not to approve the amendments and to
withdraw the legislation in its entirety:
The bill -- in addition to eliminating a requirement for a judicial warrant to block a website -- would allow that action without approval from the Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology, thereby distancing the law even more from international standards.
In response, the ICT claims that because the proposed amendments have gone through public consultations, there should be no
controversy over their passage.
Thailand's list of blocked website URLs reaches one million
||1st November 2012 |
See article from
Thailand's first blocklist was created by the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology in January 2004 during the Thaksin Shinawatra administration. It blocked 1,247 URLs by name.
Thailand's first blocklist marked the first and only
attempt at transparency by Thailand's Internet censors. Every subsequent blocklist, the webpages blocked, the reasons for blocking and even the number of pages blocked is held in secret by Thai government.
Following Thailand's military coup d'etat
on September 19, 2006, the military's fifth official order on its first day in power was to block the Internet. Under the coup regime, tens of thousands of webpages were blocked.
The coup government's first legislative action was to promulgate the
Computer Crimes Act 2007. In its first drafts, the CCA prescribed the death penalty for computer crimes; this was modified in the final law to only 20 years in prison.
The new elected opposition government has continued the folly of its
predecessors. It was further revealed that Thai government censorship was rising at a rate of 690 new pages blocked every single day.
Thailand's censorship has shown no signs of abating and almost none of the webpages blocked during the emergency
have been unblocked. In 2012, more than 90,000 Facebook pages were blocked. So are online pharmacies and gambling sites.
To date, Thailand has spent THB 2,173,913,043---more than two billion baht---(almost USD $71 million) to censor our
On December 28, 2011, Thailand was blocking 777,286 webpages. Today, November 1, 2012, Thailand blocks ONE MILLION URLs
|20th August |
Tunisian court confirms requirement for ISPs to block all porn sites
See article from
A Tunisian appeal court has rejected a motion by the Tunisian Internet Agency to defer a lower court's May ruling making ATI responsible for blocking Tunisian internet users' access to pornographic websites.
One of the three lawyers who brought
the original case, Moneem Turki, told the news agency that the court of appeal confirmed the initial decision to censure all pornographic websites despite the ATI counsel having submitted proof that her organisation did not have the financial or
technical means to do so.
It had been argued that such websites should be filtered because they constituted a danger to young internet users and went against Moslem values.
Although ATI announced that it would file an appeal with the
highest court of appeal ( cour de cassation ), the agency is required to comply with the blocking immediately.
|24th December |
Internet censorship under state of emergency
See article from bangkokpost.com
|3rd November |
Thailand website blocking hits a quarter million
Based on article from
Thailand's Technology ministry, MICT, is to close 46,000 more websites for being critical of Thailand's political setup.
This is the first government announcement of further Internet censorship since July.
The new Army commander has signed
a memorandum of understanding specifying 43,000 websites to be blocked immediately and 3,000 pending.
Relying solely upon previous government media releases totaling 210,110 websites, Thailand is now blocking 256,110 websites.
|21st June |
Thailand approves creation of a new body of internet censors
16th June 2010.
The Thai cabinet has approved the creation of a new cyber crime agency to stamp out online criticism of the revered monarchy.
The government, which has blocked tens of thousands of web pages in recent years for insulting the royal family, said the
main task of the Bureau of Prevention and Eradication of Computer Crime would be to prevent criticism of the monarchy.
Under the kingdom's strict lese majeste rules, insulting the monarchy or a member of the royal family can result in jail terms
of up to 15 years. Anyone can file a lese majeste complaint, and police are duty-bound to investigate it.
And under Thailand's computer crime law, introduced in 2007, acts of defamation and posting false rumours online are punishable by five years
in jail and a fine of 100,000 baht.
Thai authorities had already been closely scrutinising online comments about the monarchy since the Red Shirt campaign. Campaigning for changes in Thai democracy is seen by the Thai authorities as very
close to criticism of the monarchy.
Update: Blocking list now 113,000 websites!
21st June 2010. Based on
On May 9, Thai Information Ministry MICT and the Thai emergency law enforcers CRES admitted to blocking at least 50,000 websites
and adding 500 more per day. Thai anti-censorship campaigners, FACT's, extensive testing across Thai ISPs has revealed that ISPs are blocking at least a further 15,000 bringing the total to more than 65,000. In the second week of May, CRES announced
blocking of 770 new websites; on May 26, CRES announced blocking of 1,150 more. If we add these new figures to 46,000 websites, Thailand is blocking at least 113,000 websites!
On June 17, Thailand's new ICT minister announced a blacklist of 200
persons banned from posting to the Internet. This restriction was undefined but presumably all sites bearing these names will be blocked. Although the names of former PM office minister Jakrapob Penkair and Chulalongkorn University professor Giles Ji
Ungpakorn, both in exile over lèse majesté charges, are known to be on the blacklist, the rest of the list is secret.
Included in the announcement of the blacklist on June 17, government is threatening to take charge of
websites it doesn't like!
|9th May |
Thai Big Brother posters warn of dangerous websites
Based on article from
George Orwell's 1984 had its Big Brother, and Thailand has Ranongrak Suwanchawee.
The country's information minister stares down from billboards along Bangkok's expressways, warning that bad websites are detrimental to society and
should be reported to a special hotline.
Anti-censorship campaigners yesterday warned that Thailand was now following regimes like neighbouring China and Myanmar in shutting down access to opposition internet sites and seriously restricting press
The government of Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva is fighting a battle on at least two major fronts against protesters seeking to oust it. On the streets, a massive force of soldiers and police has only managed to battle them to a
In cyberspace, the authorities have fared little better, despite efforts to block dissenting voices with the threat of lengthy prison terms.
The often broad-brush approach to blocking websites even affects surfers just out for
some video fun. Live streaming services justin.tv, ustream.tv and livestream.tv have also been blocked, apparently because they host transmissions by the so-called Red Shirt protesters.
Thailand is getting increasingly like China when it
comes to internet censorship, said Poomjit Sirawongprasert, president of the Thai Hosting Service Providers Club.
|21st February |
Harry Nicolaides pardoned by Thai king
The Thai king has pardoned and freed an Australian writer jailed for on lese majeste charges.
Harry Nicolaides was last month sentenced to three years in jail by a Bangkok court after pleading guilty to lese majeste.
Canberra had lobbied
intensely for a royal pardon, and Australia's foreign affairs department said Nicolaides had been freed this week.
I can confirm that the King of Thailand has granted a pardon to Mr Nicolaides, a spokesman told AFP.
barrister, Mark Dean, said Nicolaides walked free late Friday night. He was expected to arrive in Australia on Saturday, he added.
Nicolaides' brother Forde Nicolaides said the family was ecstatic at the outcome.
|7th February |
Via VPN and the Thai Netizen Network
article from facthai.wordpress.com
Thailand's Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, the Official Censor of the Military Coup, has blocked at least 17,775 websites which, along with blocking by the Royal Thai Police, resulted in more than 50,000 websites blocked
in Thailand. Public webboard discussions, circumvention tools, voices from Thailand's Muslim South and critical commentary of Thailand's monarchy were particularly targetted for censorship.
Thailand's military government also passed a
Computer-Related Crimes Act with draconian penalties and onerous data retention provisions abnegating privacy and anonymity and chilling public discussion of vital issues among Thais. The result of this cybercrime law was to criminalise circumvention
with one notable exception, the Virtual Private Networks (VPN) relied on by business to create a secure, private, encrypted channel.
Freedom Against Censorship Thailand (FACT) has now
provided links to easy tools for private citizens to legally ignore Thailand's Internet censorship. Virtual Private Networks
have been complicated to set up and difficult to maintain. However, with these two free, public tools, VPN is available to everyone.
article from cpj.org
Thailand's Internet--once open and free--is fast morphing into one of Asia's more censored cyberspaces. But a new group of concerned Thai citizens, known as the Thai Netizen Network (TNN), is bidding to turn back the tide of government censorship through
advocacy and monitoring.
Web sites that have posted materials deemed potentially offensive to the Thai royal family have been blocked by successive military-appointed and democratically elected Thai governments. And the campaign of censorship is
accelerating under new Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva.
Beginning last year, a group of academics, activists, journalists and webmasters held informal meetings to discuss the emerging threat to Internet freedom in the wake of the passage of the
2007 Cyber Crime Act and the intensified use of lese majeste charges against journalists, commentators, and everyday Internet users. Both laws give Thai officials the authority to censor news and opinions that could be deemed a threat to national
security or the monarchy.
TNN coalesced into a formal organization soon after several local Web sites, including news and commentary outlets Prachathai and Fah Diew Kan, were threatened with closure last year by officials for posting materials
offensive to the monarchy. Fah Diew Kan's site was eventually blocked in January after officials threatened the site's ISP administrator.
TNN coordinator Supinya Klangnarong told CPJ that the new group's main missions are to keep Thailand's
Internet open and free, to monitor government surveillance and censorship, and to provide moral and legal support to Internet users and writers who encounter harassment for their postings.
Currently, TNN is publicizing the case and arranging
legal representation for Suwicha Thakor, an oil-rig engineer who was arrested and held without bail on January 14 for posting materials onto the Internet considered offensive to the monarchy. They have also taken up the case of BBC correspondent Jonathan
Head, who faces three different lese majeste complaints filed by a senior Thai police official.
|6th February |
Thais asked to inform on anyone criticising the monarchy
Based on article from
The government in Thailand has set up a special website urging people to inform on anyone criticising the monarchy.
It has also established a war room to co-ordinate the blocking of websites deemed offensive to the monarchy. On its first day of
operation the centre banned nearly 5,000 websites. The Ministry of Information had already blocked many thousands of sites, but that work is now being accelerated by the new centre.
Internet users are being urged to show their loyalty to the king
by informing via a new website called protecttheking.net (Thai language), which has been set up by a parliamentary committee. It calls on all citizens to inform on anyone suspected of insulting or criticising the monarchy.
The new website appears
to be part of a concerted effort by the government and its conservative supporters to stifle any debate on the future of the monarchy, before it can gather momentum, our correspondent says.
The War Room
Based on article from prachatai.com
The committee formalized the Internet
Security Operations Centre (ISOC), formerly known as the ‘War Room', to monitor inappropriate content on the internet, with officials from the ICT Ministry and other relevant agencies keeping watch 24 hours a day. A special call centre is being set up
for the public to give information on inappropriate websites.
In the ISOC room, staff will be divided into three sections to monitor three categories of inappropriate websites: (1) those which offend the nation, religion, and monarchy, (2)
those which affect tradition and culture, such as Hi5, or advertise abortion pills, and (3) those which provide gambling and dangerous online games such as the GTA game, said the ICT Minister.
According to the minister, the MICT has requested
court orders to close or block 4,818 URLs which include 4,683 web pages offensive to the monarchy, 98 pages offering pornography, and 37 pages containing false advertisements.
The MICT and the Ministry of Culture have also been monitoring the
postings of pictures of female students with phone numbers for the purpose of prostitution, and have found an increase in online advertisements for abortion pills and sex gear.
|3rd February |
Student sex for sale websites added to Thailand's banned list
Based on article
The increasing censorial Prime Minister of Thailand, Abhisit Vejjajiva, has said that he had instructed the Information and Communication Technology Ministry to crack down on websites, which allow students to post messages soliciting sex clients.
Abhisit said the ministry was taking actions against the sites. He said the prostitution by students was influenced by wrong values so there should be campaigns to have students change their values. He said the government is launching the
campaigns through education as well.
Previously the issue had been identified by colleges and universities who sought action against students found to have engaged in direct-sale prostitution via social-network websites like Hi5.
Assoc Prof Sukhum Chaloeysap of Suan Dusit Rajabhat University said all institutes of higher learning should admit the problem existed and join forces to combat it.
Some students are said to have touted sexual services on Hi5, which has links to more than 1,000 other websites that openly post students' pictures, many in uniform, and suggestive messages. He urged the principals of colleges and universities to
Many students' part-time jobs are affected by the economic slowdown, driving some to prostitution to earn extra money, he said.
He blamed the online student sex trade on youth's faulty values and overspending on luxurious and
unnecessary items that drove young people to such lengths to get quick cash. He called for strong families and proactive educational and religious institutions to counter the trend.
|8th January |
Thailand sets up war room for internet censorship
Based on article from
See also Web censoring needs a debate from
Thailand has blocked 2,300 Web sites and is establishing a war room for future crackdowns, which critics say threaten free speech.
Authorities are seeking a court order to shut 400 more sites and will spend 45 million baht ($1.3 million)
to create a 24-hour center to police Internet material, Information and Communications Technology Minister Ranongrak Suwanchawee said in a statement posted on the ICT’s Web site.
The ministry is investing a lot of money to buy expensive
software to block Web sites, but actually it’s very contrary to international standards, said lawyer Paiboon Amonpinyokeat: The government has to understand the nature of the Internet and the concept of freedom of speech.
the 2007 law passed after the military seized power in a coup, authorities can’t block Web sites without a court order. The law was designed to prevent abuse of power by giving judges the final say on whether to shut down an Internet site, Paiboon
The ministry plans to introduce heavier fines and prison terms for anyone who supposedly insults the king via the Internet, Ranongrak said in the statement. She also plans to target inappropriate online games and casinos. And of
course there are plenty of porn sites on the censored list.
|19th September |
1600 websites being blocked in Thailand
Based on article from
The Thai public is never made aware of the extent of Internet censorship because the ICT ministry operates as secret government.
Recently, MICT announced that it had been blocking 1,200 websites.
No article we've seen points out that the
further 400 sites recently blocked by court order on application of MICT are in addition to the original 1,200.
If these figures can be called accurate, MICT is responsible for blocking at least 1,600 websites.
The court order was never
made public because, of course, MICT would then have to reveal exactly which sites were being blocked and the reasons for so doing.